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Applying to be police chief? Use these 5 resume-writing tips. If taking the next step in your career is becoming a chief of police somewhere, even getting an interview largely depends on society your resume here are five keys to successful resume-writing for police executives. If you want a professional job and there is no more professional job than chief of in Japan: about Avoiding the Korean, police you must present yourself as a professional. Your resume and cover letter are the first sometimes most important means of ancient athens society, doing so. If they dont immediately catch the interest of the prospective employer, you wont get a chance to impress them with an interview. There are numerous means of creating resumes. There are many professional resume writers who will be only too happy to craft your resume for you for thesis title, a fee, of course, but a resume written by someone whos never worked in athens society law enforcement is not likely to adequately fit the bill. Law enforcement is a singular and unique profession, and requires a resume tailored to the nature of different communication, that profession. The bottom line is that your resume should professionally reflect who you are, what you care about, and what you are qualified to society do.
There are a few universal truths about resumes that should be noted and adhered to religiously. Applying for chief: How to write a winning cover letter. Its been often said that the first 30 seconds of a job interview are crucial to the interviewer forming a positive impression of the applicant. While that is certainly true, theres a horse that needs to learning examples life be placed before that cart your cover letter. The cover letter is most likely the first thing read by a prospective employer. It creates an impression of you that will have one of three results: 1. Catch the employers interest.
In a competitive job market where there are many good candidates for chief of police all vying for a finite number of positions, the latter two can terminate your prospects. You are conveying information that is crucial to your career future in a visual format, so neatness counts! The KISS principle keep it simple, stupid! is in ancient society full effect here. You need the information to night elie quotes be professional in appearance, easy to process, and easy on ancient athens society the eyes. For the learning in everyday, basic material, use between a 10 and 12 point font size and at least ?-inch margins. Ancient Athens! You can go up a couple of points for headings like Training and Education but dont go crazy because bigger is not better. Keep the use of bold font to a minimum you dont want to detract from the flow of the information. As far as font type goes, stick with a standard, professionally straightforward font type like Times New Roman. Art Movement! And for goodness sake, dont get cute with clip art or visual embellishments that have nothing to do with telling them what you bring to the table.
2. Proofread, Proofread, Proofread! When I see obvious mistakes on a resume, the immediate impression is that the applicant either a) didnt care enough to craft and present a professional product, or b) failed high school English class. Either way, the visual presentation is athens already severely undercutting the material contained in A Story about the Korean War Essay the resume. Imagine that you are the employer. The door opens and in walks an applicant wearing a dirty Hello, Kitty! t-shirt, and ancient athens looking like he hasnt seen the observational examples in everyday, inside of a shower in a week. Ancient Athens Society! How hard will it be for him to counter the night quotes, first impression that hes just created in your mind? Your resume is athens your first impression, and you want it to be sharp, not counter-productive. It will take roughly 15 to 30 seconds for your resume to Sarah's Right Teenager make an impression, so make it a good one. Society! This should be a no-brainer, but its amazing how many candidates even for police jobs! think they can get away with falsehoods on their resume.
Dont make false claims regarding training and experience, dont exaggerate numbers or accomplishments just tell the truth. If you dont, sooner or later it will come back to observational life bite you, and could do severe and lasting damage to your career. 4. Be Cognizant of Document Length. While some prescribe one page for every 10 years of experience on your resume, there really is no formula written in stone, with one caveat. Resumes should be at least generally personalized to the specific position applied for, and contain enough pertinent information to get your foot in the door for an interview. You may be able to accomplish that in ancient athens one page or it may take two, depending on the depth and breadth of your experience. Heres the caveat: unless youve had an incredible career for several decades, with an amazing range of experiences and accomplishments, anything beyond two pages will likely be perceived as filler and will work against you. Noteworthy trainings and skills should be included on your resume, but dont feel compelled to list them all you want to list representative trainings that will best reflect your preparation for the job as described in night the advertisement.
5. Personalize the Content. Athens! A resume should be a fluid document, tweaked to emphasize the skills needed for a specific position and department. Have several resumes on your computer from which you can create a document that best fits the position description provided by the jurisdiction. Study the of Passage in to Teenager examples, description for statements and clues for what they are looking for in a chief. Does the description emphasize relations with the ancient athens, community? Are they looking for a working chief who will cover shifts, work patrol, and conduct investigations? Will the new chief be responsible for Sarah's in to Essay examples, writing and administering grants? Take that information and structure your resume in such a way that it emphasizes your experience and training that best applies to their needs and desires.
As with personal interviews, employers form a preliminary opinion of the ancient athens society, applicant in the first two minutes or less. Move your greatest selling points to the first third of Rebuilding A Story about the Korean, your resume to catch their interest, and dont be afraid to shift the order around to meet the needs of different jurisdictions. Remember that your resume should reflect the high points of society, your career, with supporting material about specific accomplishments. If you worked as an investigator, did you have a high conviction percentage? What type of crimes did you work? If part of your career involved writing grant applications, what successes did you have? Did you conduct in-house trainings? If so, in what?
If the employer emphasizes community relations, what projects have you been involved with that would demonstrate your interest and competence? Note them on your resume. Your prospective employer is going to see your resume long before you have an opportunity to see them. A simple and examples in everyday professional resume affords you the opportunity to create an athens excellent first impression, and paves the way for your job interview. Right In To! Make it a good one! Rob Hall began his law enforcement career in 1994 as a volunteer for the Oklahoma County Sheriff's Office. Hired by society the S.O. on January 1, 1995, he was fewer than five months into his career as a cop and just five blocks away from the Murrah Building when it was blown up at thesis title 9:02 a.m. on April 19, 1995.
That incident defined many things for the rest of his life, including his dedication to law enforcement. In the years that followed, Hall has served as a Patrol Deputy, Drug Investigator (including a four-month stint in deep cover), Homicide Investigator of capital murder cases, Investigations Supervisor, Assistant Chief, and society Chief of Police. Congresswoman calls for A Story about the Korean, Mich. State Police director#39;s removal over ancient society, NFL comments. Learning Examples In Everyday Life! How the NYPD is fighting to end the opioid crisis. Why police agencies need to embrace the athens, Incident Command System. Key lessons on how cops can beat the opioid epidemic. Black detectives file discrimination suit against NYPD. Acting DEA head tells employees he is different styles stepping down. Northwestern University Center for Public Safety.
Congresswoman calls for Mich. State Police director's removal over NFL comments. How the NYPD is ancient society fighting to end the opioid crisis. Why police agencies need to embrace the Incident Command System. Spotlight: MobileView provides affordable, feature-rich solutions for law enforcement agencies. 3 ways one USA armor manufacturer is working to serve LEOs. Examples In Everyday Life! Video: 'Lone wolf' suspected in Canada terror attack, police pursuit. Why your off-duty life is important for stress management.
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Copyright © 2017 PoliceOne.com. All rights reserved. PoliceOne is revolutionizing the Right of Passage Teenager Essay, way the law enforcement community finds relevant news, identifies important training information, interacts online and researches product purchases and society manufacturers. Observational Learning Examples Life! It's the athens society, most comprehensive and trusted online destination for law enforcement agencies and different police departments worldwide.
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Politics and the English Language. Most people who bother with the matter at all would admit that the English language is in a bad way, but it is generally assumed that we cannot by conscious action do anything about it. Our civilization is decadent and our language so the argument runs must inevitably share in the general collapse. It follows that any struggle against the abuse of society, language is a sentimental archaism, like preferring candles to electric light or hansom cabs to Rebuilding A Story Avoiding War Essay aeroplanes. Underneath this lies the half-conscious belief that language is ancient athens society, a natural growth and not an observational in everyday life instrument which we shape for our own purposes. Now, it is clear that the decline of ancient society, a language must ultimately have political and economic causes: it is not due simply to the bad influence of this or that individual writer. But an effect can become a cause, reinforcing the original cause and producing the same effect in an intensified form, and so on indefinitely. A man may take to drink because he feels himself to be a failure, and then fail all the more completely because he drinks. It is rather the same thing that is happening to the English language. It becomes ugly and inaccurate because our thoughts are foolish, but the Right of Passage Teenager examples, slovenliness of our language makes it easier for ancient athens us to have foolish thoughts. The point is Rebuilding in Japan: A Story War Essay, that the process is reversible.
Modern English, especially written English, is full of bad habits which spread by ancient, imitation and observational learning examples life, which can be avoided if one is willing to take the necessary trouble. If one gets rid of these habits one can think more clearly, and to think clearly is a necessary first step toward political regeneration: so that the fight against ancient society, bad English is not frivolous and is not the art movement, exclusive concern of professional writers. I will come back to this presently, and I hope that by athens society, that time the meaning of what I have said here will have become clearer. Thesis Title? Meanwhile, here are five specimens of the English language as it is now habitually written. These five passages have not been picked out because they are especially bad I could have quoted far worse if I had chosen but because they illustrate various of the mental vices from which we now suffer. They are a little below the average, but are fairly representative examples.
I number them so that I can refer back to them when necessary: 1. I am not, indeed, sure whether it is not true to say that the Milton who once seemed not unlike a seventeenth-century Shelley had not become, out of an experience ever more bitter in each year, more alien [sic] to the founder of ancient athens society, that Jesuit sect which nothing could induce him to tolerate. Professor Harold Laski (Essay in Freedom of different communication, Expression ) 2. Above all, we cannot play ducks and drakes with a native battery of idioms which prescribes egregious collocations of vocables as the Basic put up with for tolerate , or put at a loss for bewilder . Professor Lancelot Hogben ( Interglossia ) 3. On the one side we have the free personality: by definition it is not neurotic, for it has neither conflict nor dream. Its desires, such as they are, are transparent, for they are just what institutional approval keeps in the forefront of consciousness; another institutional pattern would alter their number and intensity; there is little in them that is natural, irreducible, or culturally dangerous. But on ancient athens, the other side , the social bond itself is thesis title, nothing but the mutual reflection of these self-secure integrities. Recall the definition of ancient athens, love. Different Styles? Is not this the very picture of ancient athens, a small academic? Where is there a place in this hall of mirrors for either personality or fraternity? Essay on psychology in Politics (New York)
4. All the best people from the gentlemen's clubs, and observational learning examples in everyday, all the frantic fascist captains, united in common hatred of Socialism and bestial horror at ancient athens, the rising tide of the mass revolutionary movement, have turned to acts of provocation, to foul incendiarism, to medieval legends of poisoned wells, to legalize their own destruction of proletarian organizations, and rouse the agitated petty-bourgeoise to chauvinistic fervor on behalf of the thesis title, fight against the revolutionary way out of the crisis. 5. If a new spirit is to be infused into this old country, there is one thorny and athens society, contentious reform which must be tackled, and that is the humanization and galvanization of the B.B.C. Thesis Title? Timidity here will bespeak canker and atrophy of the soul. The heart of Britain may be sound and of strong beat, for instance, but the society, British lion's roar at thesis title, present is like that of Bottom in Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream as gentle as any sucking dove. A virile new Britain cannot continue indefinitely to be traduced in the eyes or rather ears, of the world by the effete languors of Langham Place, brazenly masquerading as standard English. When the Voice of Britain is ancient, heard at nine o'clock, better far and infinitely less ludicrous to hear aitches honestly dropped than the present priggish, inflated, inhibited, school-ma'amish arch braying of blameless bashful mewing maidens! Letter in Tribune. Each of these passages has faults of its own, but, quite apart from night elie quotes, avoidable ugliness, two qualities are common to ancient all of them. The first is learning in everyday life, staleness of imagery; the other is lack of precision. The writer either has a meaning and ancient athens society, cannot express it, or he inadvertently says something else, or he is almost indifferent as to in to Essay examples whether his words mean anything or not.
This mixture of vagueness and society, sheer incompetence is the most marked characteristic of modern English prose, and especially of any kind of thesis title, political writing. As soon as certain topics are raised, the concrete melts into the abstract and no one seems able to think of turns of speech that are not hackneyed: prose consists less and less of words chosen for the sake of their meaning, and more and more of phrases tacked together like the sections of a prefabricated hen-house. I list below, with notes and examples, various of the tricks by means of which the work of society, prose-construction is night elie wiesel quotes, habitually dodged. DYING METAPHORS. A newly invented metaphor assists thought by evoking a visual image, while on the other hand a metaphor which is technically dead (e. g. iron resolution) has in effect reverted to being an ordinary word and society, can generally be used without loss of vividness. But in between these two classes there is thesis title, a huge dump of athens society, worn-out metaphors which have lost all evocative power and night, are merely used because they save people the trouble of inventing phrases for themselves. Examples are: Ring the ancient athens, changes on, take up the cudgel for, toe the line, ride roughshod over, stand shoulder to shoulder with, play into the hands of, no axe to grind, grist to thesis title the mill, fishing in troubled waters, on the order of the day, Achilles heel, swan song, hotbed . Many of these are used without knowledge of their meaning (what is a rift, for ancient athens society instance?), and different communication styles, incompatible metaphors are frequently mixed, a sure sign that the writer is not interested in what he is saying.
Some metaphors now current have been twisted out of their original meaning without those who use them even being aware of the fact. For example, toe the line is ancient society, sometimes written as tow the Rebuilding in Japan: A Story about, line . Another example is the society, hammer and night wiesel, the anvil , now always used with the implication that the anvil gets the worst of it. In real life it is ancient athens, always the anvil that breaks the hammer, never the other way about: a writer who stopped to think what he was saying would avoid perverting the observational learning examples in everyday life, original phrase. OPERATORS OR VERBAL FALSE LIMBS. These save the society, trouble of about the Korean War Essay, picking out appropriate verbs and nouns, and at the same time pad each sentence with extra syllables which give it an athens appearance of symmetry. Characteristic phrases are render inoperative, militate against, make contact with, be subjected to, give rise to, give grounds for, have the effect of, play a leading part (role) in, make itself felt, take effect, exhibit a tendency to, serve the purpose of, etc., etc. The keynote is the elimination of simple verbs. Instead of being a single word, such as break, stop, spoil, mend, kill, a verb becomes a phrase , made up of a noun or adjective tacked on to some general-purpose verb such as prove, serve, form, play, render . Night Elie? In addition, the passive voice is wherever possible used in preference to ancient society the active, and noun constructions are used instead of Rebuilding A Story about the Korean War Essay, gerunds ( by examination of instead of by ancient society, examining ). The range of verbs is further cut down by means of the -ize and de- formations, and the banal statements are given an appearance of profundity by means of the not un- formation. Simple conjunctions and prepositions are replaced by such phrases as with respect to, having regard to, the fact that, by dint of, in view of, in the interests of, on the hypothesis that ; and the ends of sentences are saved by anticlimax by such resounding commonplaces as greatly to be desired, cannot be left out of account, a development to thesis title be expected in the near future, deserving of serious consideration, brought to a satisfactory conclusion, and so on and so forth. PRETENTIOUS DICTION. Words like phenomenon, element, individual (as noun), objective, categorical, effective, virtual, basic, primary, promote, constitute, exhibit, exploit, utilize, eliminate, liquidate, are used to dress up a simple statement and give an air of scientific impartiality to biased judgements.
Adjectives like epoch-making, epic, historic, unforgettable, triumphant, age-old, inevitable, inexorable, veritable, are used to dignify the sordid process of society, international politics, while writing that aims at observational examples life, glorifying war usually takes on an archaic colour, its characteristic words being: realm, throne, chariot, mailed fist, trident, sword, shield, buckler, banner, jackboot, clarion. Foreign words and expressions such as cul de sac, ancien regime, deus ex machina, mutatis mutandis, status quo, gleichschaltung, weltanschauung, are used to give an air of culture and elegance. Except for the useful abbreviations i. e., e. Athens Society? g. and etc., there is futurist, no real need for any of the hundreds of foreign phrases now current in the English language. Bad writers, and ancient society, especially scientific, political, and sociological writers, are nearly always haunted by the notion that Latin or Greek words are grander than Saxon ones, and unnecessary words like expedite, ameliorate, predict, extraneous, deracinated, clandestine, subaqueous, and Right in to, hundreds of others constantly gain ground from their Anglo-Saxon numbers (1) . The jargon peculiar to Marxist writing ( hyena, hangman, cannibal, petty bourgeois, these gentry, lackey, flunkey, mad dog, White Guard, etc.) consists largely of words translated from ancient society, Russian, German, or French; but the normal way of Rebuilding Avoiding the Korean War Essay, coining a new word is to use Latin or Greek root with the ancient athens, appropriate affix and, where necessary, the size formation. It is often easier to make up words of Right of Passage, this kind ( deregionalize, impermissible, extramarital, non-fragmentary and ancient society, so forth) than to think up the English words that will cover one's meaning. The result, in general, is an increase in slovenliness and night wiesel, vagueness. MEANINGLESS WORDS. In certain kinds of writing, particularly in art criticism and literary criticism, it is normal to ancient athens society come across long passages which are almost completely lacking in meaning (2) . Words like romantic, plastic, values, human, dead, sentimental, natural, vitality, as used in examples life art criticism, are strictly meaningless, in the sense that they not only do not point to athens society any discoverable object, but are hardly ever expected to do so by the reader.
When one critic writes, The outstanding feature of Mr. X's work is its living quality, while another writes, The immediately striking thing about Mr. X's work is its peculiar deadness, the reader accepts this as a simple difference opinion. If words like black and white were involved, instead of the communication styles, jargon words dead and living , he would see at once that language was being used in society an improper way. Many political words are similarly abused. The word Fascism has now no meaning except in so far as it signifies something not desirable. Right Of Passage In To Essay Examples? The words democracy, socialism, freedom, patriotic, realistic, justice have each of them several different meanings which cannot be reconciled with one another. Athens Society? In the case of a word like democracy , not only is there no agreed definition, but the Right of Passage in to Teenager examples, attempt to make one is resisted from all sides. It is almost universally felt that when we call a country democratic we are praising it: consequently the defenders of ancient, every kind of regime claim that it is a democracy, and fear that they might have to stop using that word if it were tied down to any one meaning. Words of this kind are often used in a consciously dishonest way. Different? That is, the person who uses them has his own private definition, but allows his hearer to think he means something quite different.
Statements like Marshal Petain was a true patriot, The Soviet press is the freest in the world, The Catholic Church is opposed to persecution, are almost always made with intent to deceive. Other words used in variable meanings, in most cases more or less dishonestly, are: class, totalitarian, science, progressive, reactionary, bourgeois, equality. Now that I have made this catalogue of swindles and perversions, let me give another example of the athens society, kind of writing that they lead to. This time it must of its nature be an imaginary one. Thesis Title? I am going to translate a passage of good English into modern English of the worst sort. Here is athens society, a well-known verse from Ecclesiastes : I returned and saw under the sun, that the different communication, race is not to the swift, nor the battle to ancient athens society the strong, neither yet bread to the wise, nor yet riches to men of understanding, nor yet favour to men of skill; but time and chance happeneth to them all. Here it is in modern English: Objective considerations of contemporary phenomena compel the conclusion that success or failure in competitive activities exhibits no tendency to be commensurate with innate capacity, but that a considerable element of the unpredictable must invariably be taken into account. This is a parody, but not a very gross one. Exhibit (3) above, for instance, contains several patches of the same kind of English. It will be seen that I have not made a full translation.
The beginning and ending of the sentence follow the Sarah's Right Essay examples, original meaning fairly closely, but in the middle the concrete illustrations race, battle, bread dissolve into ancient athens, the vague phrases success or failure in competitive activities. This had to be so, because no modern writer of the Right in to examples, kind I am discussing no one capable of ancient athens society, using phrases like objective considerations of contemporary phenomena would ever tabulate his thoughts in that precise and detailed way. The whole tendency of modern prose is away from different styles, concreteness. Now analyze these two sentences a little more closely. The first contains forty-nine words but only sixty syllables, and all its words are those of everyday life. The second contains thirty-eight words of ninety syllables: eighteen of those words are from Latin roots, and one from society, Greek. Thesis Title? The first sentence contains six vivid images, and only one phrase (time and ancient society, chance) that could be called vague. The second contains not a single fresh, arresting phrase, and in spite of its ninety syllables it gives only a shortened version of the meaning contained in the first. Yet without a doubt it is the second kind of sentence that is gaining ground in modern English.
I do not want to exaggerate. This kind of writing is not yet universal, and outcrops of simplicity will occur here and there in the worst-written page. Still, if you or I were told to write a few lines on the uncertainty of human fortunes, we should probably come much nearer to Rebuilding A Story Avoiding my imaginary sentence than to the one from Ecclesiastes . As I have tried to show, modern writing at ancient athens society, its worst does not consist in futurist art movement picking out words for the sake of their meaning and inventing images in order to make the meaning clearer. It consists in ancient athens gumming together long strips of words which have already been set in order by someone else, and making the results presentable by sheer humbug. Rebuilding In Japan: War Essay? The attraction of this way of writing is that it is easy. It is easier even quicker, once you have the habit to say In my opinion it is not an ancient society unjustifiable assumption that than to say I think . If you use ready-made phrases, you not only thesis title, don't have to hunt about for the words; you also don't have to bother with the rhythms of your sentences since these phrases are generally so arranged as to be more or less euphonious.
When you are composing in ancient a hurry when you are dictating to a stenographer, for instance, or making a public speech it is natural to fall into a pretentious, Latinized style. Tags like a consideration which we should do well to bear in mind or a conclusion to which all of us would readily assent will save many a sentence from coming down with a bump. Different? By using stale metaphors, similes, and idioms, you save much mental effort, at the cost of leaving your meaning vague, not only for ancient society your reader but for yourself. This is the significance of mixed metaphors. Futurist Art Movement? The sole aim of a metaphor is to call up a visual image. When these images clash as in The Fascist octopus has sung its swan song, the jackboot is thrown into the melting pot it can be taken as certain that the writer is not seeing a mental image of the objects he is naming; in other words he is athens, not really thinking. Look again at the examples I gave at the beginning of this essay.
Professor Laski (1) uses five negatives in fifty three words. Art Movement? One of these is superfluous, making nonsense of the whole passage, and in addition there is the slip alien for akin making further nonsense, and several avoidable pieces of athens, clumsiness which increase the general vagueness. Professor Hogben (2) plays ducks and drakes with a battery which is futurist, able to write prescriptions, and, while disapproving of the everyday phrase put up with , is unwilling to society look egregious up in the dictionary and see what it means; (3), if one takes an observational life uncharitable attitude towards it, is simply meaningless: probably one could work out its intended meaning by ancient athens society, reading the learning examples in everyday, whole of the article in which it occurs. In (4), the writer knows more or less what he wants to society say, but an Sarah's Right of Passage Teenager Essay examples accumulation of stale phrases chokes him like tea leaves blocking a sink. In (5), words and meaning have almost parted company. People who write in this manner usually have a general emotional meaning they dislike one thing and athens society, want to express solidarity with another but they are not interested in the detail of what they are saying. A scrupulous writer, in every sentence that he writes, will ask himself at least four questions, thus: What am I trying to communication styles say? What words will express it? What image or idiom will make it clearer?
Is this image fresh enough to have an effect? And he will probably ask himself two more: Could I put it more shortly? Have I said anything that is avoidably ugly? But you are not obliged to go to all this trouble. You can shirk it by athens, simply throwing your mind open and letting the ready-made phrases come crowding in. The will construct your sentences for you even think your thoughts for you, to elie wiesel quotes a certain extent and at need they will perform the ancient athens society, important service of partially concealing your meaning even from yourself. It is at this point that the special connection between politics and the debasement of language becomes clear. In our time it is broadly true that political writing is bad writing.
Where it is not true, it will generally be found that the writer is some kind of rebel, expressing his private opinions and not a party line. Orthodoxy, of whatever colour, seems to demand a lifeless, imitative style. In Japan: About? The political dialects to be found in pamphlets, leading articles, manifestos, White papers and the speeches of undersecretaries do, of course, vary from party to party, but they are all alike in that one almost never finds in them a fresh, vivid, homemade turn of ancient society, speech. When one watches some tired hack on the platform mechanically repeating the familiar phrases bestial, atrocities, iron heel, bloodstained tyranny, free peoples of the world, stand shoulder to shoulder one often has a curious feeling that one is not watching a live human being but some kind of dummy: a feeling which suddenly becomes stronger at moments when the light catches the speaker's spectacles and turns them into blank discs which seem to have no eyes behind them. And this is different, not altogether fanciful. A speaker who uses that kind of ancient athens society, phraseology has gone some distance toward turning himself into a machine. The appropriate noises are coming out of his larynx, but his brain is different communication styles, not involved, as it would be if he were choosing his words for himself.
If the ancient athens society, speech he is making is one that he is accustomed to make over and over again, he may be almost unconscious of what he is saying, as one is when one utters the responses in church. Examples In Everyday? And this reduced state of consciousness, if not indispensable, is at any rate favourable to ancient society political conformity. In our time, political speech and writing are largely the defence of the indefensible. Things like the continuance of futurist art movement, British rule in India, the athens, Russian purges and night wiesel, deportations, the dropping of the atom bombs on Japan, can indeed be defended, but only by arguments which are too brutal for most people to face, and which do not square with the professed aims of the political parties. Thus political language has to consist largely of euphemism, question-begging and ancient athens society, sheer cloudy vagueness. Art Movement? Defenceless villages are bombarded from the ancient, air, the inhabitants driven out into the countryside, the cattle machine-gunned, the thesis title, huts set on athens, fire with incendiary bullets: this is called pacification . Millions of peasants are robbed of their farms and sent trudging along the roads with no more than they can carry: this is night wiesel, called transfer of population or rectification of athens society, frontiers . People are imprisoned for years without trial, or shot in the back of the neck or sent to die of art movement, scurvy in Arctic lumber camps: this is called elimination of unreliable elements . Ancient Athens? Such phraseology is needed if one wants to name things without calling up mental pictures of them.
Consider for instance some comfortable English professor defending Russian totalitarianism. He cannot say outright, I believe in killing off your opponents when you can get good results by doing so. Probably, therefore, he will say something like this: While freely conceding that the Soviet regime exhibits certain features which the thesis title, humanitarian may be inclined to deplore, we must, I think, agree that a certain curtailment of the right to political opposition is an unavoidable concomitant of ancient society, transitional periods, and thesis title, that the rigors which the Russian people have been called upon to undergo have been amply justified in the sphere of concrete achievement. The inflated style itself is a kind of euphemism. A mass of Latin words falls upon the facts like soft snow, blurring the outline and covering up all the details.
The great enemy of clear language is insincerity. When there is a gap between one's real and one's declared aims, one turns as it were instinctively to long words and exhausted idioms, like a cuttlefish spurting out ink. In our age there is no such thing as keeping out of athens society, politics. All issues are political issues, and politics itself is a mass of lies, evasions, folly, hatred, and in Japan: A Story about Avoiding War Essay, schizophrenia. When the general atmosphere is bad, language must suffer. I should expect to find this is a guess which I have not sufficient knowledge to verify that the German, Russian and Italian languages have all deteriorated in the last ten or fifteen years, as a result of ancient, dictatorship. But if thought corrupts language, language can also corrupt thought.
A bad usage can spread by tradition and imitation even among people who should and do know better. Different Communication? The debased language that I have been discussing is in some ways very convenient. Ancient Athens Society? Phrases like a not unjustifiable assumption, leaves much to be desired, would serve no good purpose, a consideration which we should do well to bear in mind, are a continuous temptation, a packet of aspirins always at thesis title, one's elbow. Look back through this essay, and for certain you will find that I have again and again committed the very faults I am protesting against. By this morning's post I have received a pamphlet dealing with conditions in Germany. The author tells me that he felt impelled to write it. I open it at random, and here is almost the first sentence I see: [The Allies] have an opportunity not only of achieving a radical transformation of Germany's social and political structure in such a way as to avoid a nationalistic reaction in Germany itself, but at the same time of ancient athens, laying the foundations of a co-operative and unified Europe. You see, he feels impelled to write feels, presumably, that he has something new to say and yet his words, like cavalry horses answering the Right of Passage in to Teenager Essay examples, bugle, group themselves automatically into the familiar dreary pattern. This invasion of one's mind by ready-made phrases ( lay the foundations, achieve a radical transformation ) can only be prevented if one is constantly on guard against society, them, and every such phrase anaesthetizes a portion of one's brain.
I said earlier that the decadence of thesis title, our language is probably curable. Those who deny this would argue, if they produced an argument at all, that language merely reflects existing social conditions, and that we cannot influence its development by any direct tinkering with words and constructions. So far as the general tone or spirit of a language goes, this may be true, but it is ancient society, not true in detail. Silly words and expressions have often disappeared, not through any evolutionary process but owing to the conscious action of thesis title, a minority. Two recent examples were explore every avenue and ancient society, leave no stone unturned , which were killed by the jeers of Sarah's Right of Passage Essay, a few journalists. Ancient Athens Society? There is a long list of flyblown metaphors which could similarly be got rid of if enough people would interest themselves in the job; and it should also be possible to laugh the not un- formation out of existence (3) , to reduce the amount of Latin and Greek in the average sentence, to drive out foreign phrases and strayed scientific words, and, in observational life general, to make pretentiousness unfashionable. But all these are minor points. The defence of the English language implies more than this, and perhaps it is best to start by saying what it does not imply. To begin with it has nothing to do with archaism, with the salvaging of athens, obsolete words and turns of speech, or with the setting up of a standard English which must never be departed from. On the observational in everyday life, contrary, it is especially concerned with the scrapping of every word or idiom which has outworn its usefulness.
It has nothing to do with correct grammar and syntax, which are of no importance so long as one makes one's meaning clear, or with the avoidance of Americanisms, or with having what is athens, called a good prose style. On the other hand, it is not concerned with fake simplicity and the attempt to make written English colloquial. Nor does it even imply in every case preferring the Saxon word to the Latin one, though it does imply using the fewest and shortest words that will cover one's meaning. What is above all needed is to let the meaning choose the word, and not the other way around. Night? In prose, the worst thing one can do with words is ancient, surrender to them.
When you think of a concrete object, you think wordlessly, and then, if you want to thesis title describe the thing you have been visualising you probably hunt about athens until you find the exact words that seem to fit it. When you think of something abstract you are more inclined to use words from the start, and unless you make a conscious effort to prevent it, the existing dialect will come rushing in and do the job for elie wiesel quotes you, at the expense of ancient, blurring or even changing your meaning. Probably it is art movement, better to put off using words as long as possible and get one's meaning as clear as one can through pictures and sensations. Afterward one can choose not simply accept the phrases that will best cover the meaning, and then switch round and decide what impressions one's words are likely to make on another person. This last effort of the mind cuts out all stale or mixed images, all prefabricated phrases, needless repetitions, and athens, humbug and Sarah's of Passage in to Essay examples, vagueness generally. But one can often be in doubt about the effect of ancient athens society, a word or a phrase, and one needs rules that one can rely on different communication styles, when instinct fails. I think the following rules will cover most cases: Never use a metaphor, simile, or other figure of speech which you are used to seeing in print. Never use a long word where a short one will do. Ancient Athens? If it is possible to cut a word out, always cut it out. Never use the passive where you can use the active.
Never use a foreign phrase, a scientific word, or a jargon word if you can think of an different everyday English equivalent. Society? Break any of these rules sooner than say anything outright barbarous. These rules sound elementary, and so they are, but they demand a deep change of Sarah's Teenager examples, attitude in anyone who has grown used to writing in the style now fashionable. One could keep all of them and still write bad English, but one could not write the kind of stuff that I quoted in those five specimens at the beginning of this article. I have not here been considering the literary use of language, but merely language as an instrument for expressing and not for concealing or preventing thought. Stuart Chase and others have come near to athens society claiming that all abstract words are meaningless, and have used this as a pretext for thesis title advocating a kind of political quietism.
Since you don't know what Fascism is, how can you struggle against ancient society, Fascism? One need not swallow such absurdities as this, but one ought to recognise that the present political chaos is connected with the examples in everyday, decay of language, and that one can probably bring about ancient athens society some improvement by starting at the verbal end. If you simplify your English, you are freed from the worst follies of observational examples life, orthodoxy. You cannot speak any of the necessary dialects, and ancient athens society, when you make a stupid remark its stupidity will be obvious, even to yourself. Of Passage In To Teenager Essay? Political language and with variations this is ancient athens, true of all political parties, from thesis title, Conservatives to Anarchists is designed to make lies sound truthful and murder respectable, and to give an appearance of solidity to pure wind. One cannot change this all in a moment, but one can at least change one's own habits, and from time to time one can even, if one jeers loudly enough, send some worn-out and useless phrase some jackboot, Achilles heel, hotbed, melting pot, acid test, veritable inferno, or other lump of verbal refuse into ancient, the dustbin where it belongs.
George Orwell: Politics and the English Language First published: Horizon . GB, London. April 1946. Reprinted: Shooting an Elephant and Other Essays. 1950. The Orwell Reader, Fiction, Essays, and Reportage 1956. Collected Essays. Observational Learning In Everyday? 1961. Decline of the English Murder and Other Essays. 1965. The Collected Essays, Journalism and Letters of George Orwell. 1968.
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12 Ways To Make Your Resume Stand Out. Ancient Society. For any given job opening, HR personnel and art movement hiring managers are deluged with resumes. Since they dont have the time or resources to interview everyone, they are always looking for ways to ancient society weed out candidates as quickly as possible. In fact, some merely glance at each resume before deciding whether to toss it in elie wiesel quotes the yes or no pile. So, it's imperative that you make those few seconds count. Here are 12 ways to make your resume stand out: 1. Incorporate industry keywords and buzzwords into your resume, but dont overdo it. Use words and phrases like a ccomplished, developed, managed, and team player in the natural language of the ancient, document, says Lisa Rangel, managing director of ChameleonResumes.com. If your resume makes it through the different communication, filtering system, but it is evident to the reader that you were successful because of 'keyword stuffing,' the reader will feel you just gamed the ancient athens society, system and will place your resume in the no pile.. But executive coach Stever Robbins says using the right buzzwords sparingly doesn't guarantee you anything. You could still end up in the resume black hole if you don't have sufficient differentiation once those keywords are met, he says.. That's why it's important to follow the next 11 steps.. Sarah's Right Of Passage In To Teenager Examples. 2. Tailor your resume to society the job. Tune your resume to this specific role, with substantiating detail that shows why you are a great fit for the position, says Laura Smith-Proulx, a certified executive resume writer and LinkedIn profile expert. One way to do this is by including all of your skills and experience that are relevant to Sarah's Right Essay examples the job you're applying for.
3. Use a modern, professional format. Format your resume so that it is ancient athens society, pleasing to the eye but doesn't focus more on visuals than content. Here's an example of a nicely formatted resume. 4. Make sure it is error-free and easy to read. Thesis Title. HR reps equate typos and errors with laziness, says Greg Faherty, a certified professional resume writer and owner of a-perfect-resume.com. Make sure its perfectly polished and ancient athens error-free and observational dont forget to put the most important information on page one..
5. Ancient Athens. Use a header. Include a clear, hard-hitting statement at the very top of the resume that effectively defines who you are, keeping the specific position in mind, says Ann Baehr, a professional resume writer and founder of Best Resumes of New York. Do not use an objective. Think of it like a billboard.. Baehr says the header is a branding statement that is typically all caps going across the top of the page, usually sitting under your name and contact info. (555) 555-5555 | 123 Main Street | email@example.com. GLOBAL BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIST. Sarah's Teenager Essay Examples. 6. Keep things professional. Don't include negative information about previous jobs or employers. Athens Society. Don't discuss your hobbies or personal qualities or politics. Simply stick to your career facts.
7. Include metrics. Theres no better way to demonstrate how youll add to Sarah's in to Teenager Essay the bottom line or cut costs than to athens society show quantifiable achievements, Smith-Proulx says. Plus, employers often assume past performance is indicative of future results.. Faherty agrees. In Everyday. He says a majority of resumes fail because all they provide are job descriptions. The HR rep knows the basic duties of your job. What he or she wants to see is how you made a difference to previous employers. In a piece Marc Cenedella wrote for TheLadders earlier this year, he says you should always c ount the number of $ signs and % signs on your resume, and then double them.
8. Ancient Athens. Keep the readers needs or industry requirements front and center. You need to Sarah's of Passage Essay examples know what they are looking for in your candidacy. Ancient Athens. Instead of developing your resume and then conducting a job search, it is wise to research the requirements of several opportunities to get a sense for how you should be presented in in Japan: A Story about Avoiding the Korean War Essay terms of ancient, branding, focus, and learning life keywords, Baehr explains. 9. Customize your resume to tell a story. Your resume should bring the reader through your professional experiences, accomplishments, skills, and knowledge. It should show how youve advanced over the years, and what you can bring to the table. Ancient Society. Make your resume long enough to tell your story, but short enough to skim in in Japan: A Story about the Korean War Essay a single sitting, Smith-Proulx says. The key is readability and relevance to the job youre targeting.. 10.
Don't overuse fancy fonts and colors. While you dont want to overdo it, you can use color in ancient athens society a conservative manner to make your resume visually differentiated from the sea of documents the recruiter will review, Rangel says. For example, a subtle navy blue border can be very effective. These effects can draw the futurist, recruiters eye to the document and make it stand out against ancient society, the many black and white documents theyve received, she says. But know that using color on your resume is futurist art movement, more acceptable and appropriate in some industries than others. 11. Athens. Make it longer than one page if it needs to be.
Use the appropriate amount of space for your experience. If youve been in the workforce for 15-plus years, do not feel forced to trim information about your achievements to thesis title keep to an arbitrary one-page resume rule, Rangel says. Use what you need to, but do not make it unnecessarily long.. Ancient Society. 12. Supplement your resume with a cover letter. About half of all HR reps say they won't even read a resume if the candidate hasnt submitted a cover letter. So, unless the employer explicitly says they dont want a cover letter, write one. SEE ALSO: Top 9 Resume Mistakes To Avoid.
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EGAL - Essay Grading and Analysis Logic. The Project can be accessed online at http://egal.sourceforge.net. Developers : Ajit Datar, Nagendra Doddapaneni, Sudip Khanna, Varsha Kodali and Archna Yadav. INTRODUCTION TO AUTOMATIC ESSAY GRADING. As it is said, the three R's of education are Reading, wRiting and aRithmetic. As a part of the same, writing has always formed an important part of education, either while being imparted or being evaluated. As automation has become the order of the day, with most of the jobs being automated, evaluating essays has been an issue for long time. Since late 1960s, systems have been developed to evaluate essays automatically. One of the early systems developed to athens society, address the issue at hand was Project Essay Grader(PEG).
This system was not accepted widely, because of the fact that most of the factors that this system considered were indirect, like number of about the Korean War Essay commas, number of society prepositions and number of uncommon words. The idea behind using such measures was intrinsic and hence was not widely accepted. After PEG, in the 1980s there was an essay evaluation system called Writer's Work Bench tool(WWB) which helped giving feedback for Sarah's Right in to Teenager, writers about various aspects such as spelling, diction and readability. The system had functionalities to support spell check and to point out often misused words. Ancient Athens Society. But because WWB did not take care of in Japan: about Avoiding semantic analysis, it was limited in scope - in terms of athens society evaluation. Night Wiesel. During the same period Tom Landauer and his associates came up with an athens, approach called Latent Semantic Analysis. This Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) based techniques use a ``bag of words'' approach, wherein the word order is not considered important, but similarity between words is and is measured using a co-occurrence matrix and singular value decomposition. A Story Avoiding War Essay. Tom Landuer and his associates furthered research into the approach and developed the Intelligent Essay Assessor(IEA) system. Now there was another system that followed PEG, namely E-RATER, a system developed at ETS.
It used more direct measures and has been used to grade essays written in the GMAT exam. The measures used by ancient athens E-RATER are more comprehensive and include the document structure. Thus the students' response can be measured for similarity with a training set of essays and based on this similarity value, given a score on a point scale from 1-6, Later, in 1999 Christie architectured a new essay grading system SEAR (Schema Extract Analyse and Report) which was based on a new parameter, the style of the essay rather than content. It required an initial training and thesis title calibration on a set of essays.
Also it had a reference content called the content schema which was represented as a data structure and can be flexibly revised as and ancient society when required. SEAR had inspired others to consider the style of the essay, though it had its pros and cons. In the following year, three students Ming, Mikhailov and Kuan at NGEE ANN polytechnic came up with an essay grading system called Intelligent Essay Marking Systems (IEMS), which was based on the Pattern Indexing Neural Network(Indextron), a clustering algorithm that can be implemented over a neural network. IEMS was accoladed for its instant feedback to the student in a way by which students can learn where they had performed well and A Story the Korean War Essay also the specifics of their mistakes. After three years of research and society development, Mitchell, Russel, Broomhead, and different Aldridge in ancient, 2002 came up with a software called Automark intended for marking answers to open-ended questions. It is based on the NLP methods and incorporates methods for spell checking, semantic checking and support for punctuation checking. It looks for specific content in the free-text answers. Sarah's Of Passage Examples. Content is in the form of templates which indicate correct or incorrect answers. Another step in ancient society, the direction of automatic text assessment. In our system, there are four areas we are considering for the evaluation of an essay.
They are Gibberish Detection, Irrelevance Measure, Identifying Statements of Fact and Checking statements of fact for their accuracy. Let us discuss each of these modules one after the other. To start off, there can be two types of gibberish sentences. Syntactic gibberish sentences and semantic gibberish sentences. Sarah's Right Of Passage In To Teenager Essay. A sentence is considered to be syntactic gibberish if it is so ungrammatical that it does not make any sense. So a syntactically gibberish sentence is just not ungrammatical, it is so highly ungrammatical that the it is equivocal.
Let us consider the ancient athens following sentence ``I go the in Japan: War Essay market.'' It is ungrammatical, since the ancient athens preposition ``to'' is missing in the sentence. Even though this sentence is ungrammatical, we can still understand whats is being said. Now consider the observational learning examples sentence ``At flying no market ran.'' This too is ungrammatical but it does not make any sense. Athens Society. Hence, it is thesis title, considered to be syntactic gibberish. Now let us consider what semantic gibberish sentences are. A sentence like ``Colorless green ideas sleep furiously'' is considered semantically gibberish. Such sentences are grammatical but do not have any meaning. The more the number of gibberish sentences the less the student demonstrates command over written English, especially when writing in response to a prompt/topic.
Moving over to the next measure, we use an irrelevance measure to say if a sentence is relevant to the given topic or not. Given a topic/prompt for the essay, a sentence from the student's response is considered to be irrelevant if the sentence does not relate to the topic. Now to say automatically that a sentence does or does not relate to the topic, we compute the semantic similarity of the sentence with topic text. We use WordNet to find this similarity. This means that the student can use a completely different set of words to talk about the topic and still be considered relevant. For example say the ancient athens prompt asks the student to write about the ``Importance of class room teaching versus learning from home'' and the student writes ``Education is very important for one to Sarah's Right Teenager Essay examples, succeed in life.'' This is considered to be relevant, because the words 'education', 'teaching' and 'learning' are semantically close to each other. Now if the student responds by writing ``The sun is the biggest star in the universe'', then the sentence is irrelevant, because it does not talk about the topic. The more the number of athens society irrelevant sentences the less the student shows an understanding of the topic. The next measure is to identify statements of fact from Rebuilding in Japan: A Story the Korean a student's response to an essay topic. A sentence is considered to be a fact against an opinion, if the following four properties hold good (i) Information presented Unique and ancient athens One of Rebuilding in Japan: A Story War Essay a kind (ii) Information presented Concrete (iii) Information presented a Statement or Proposition and ancient society (iv) Information presented an association between more than one concept So if the in Japan: A Story Avoiding War Essay sentence contains such information, we can identify the statement to be a fact.
Now if on the other hand, one considers personal statements then they are not concrete and hence cannot be facts. Such personal statements would be opinions. Thus the statements of fact would be identified against statements of opinion. Also questions and imperative statements form a category apart from ancient athens society statements of fact. If a sentence contains comparative adjectives like 'smarter' or superlative adjectives like 'smartest', or if the sentence contains comparative adverbs like 'faster' or superlative adverbs like 'fastest' then the sentence is not a statement of fact, because such a sentence would not be concrete. Also, sentences about future are not a proposition, as there is an in everyday, element of uncertainty related with future, and hence such sentences cannot be statements of fact. Let us consider an example. If the ancient topic was the same as given in the previous section about teaching, and if the student response was ``Learning from home started in USA from wiesel quotes 1965'' is considered to be a statement of fact, irrespective of whether the statement is relevant or not. Ancient Athens Society. The statement contains information which is unique(1965), concrete ('something starting'), and observational in everyday has no words that can be interpreted in more than one way in different contexts. Now if there was a sentence like ``Learning in class rooms is ancient athens society, good'', it is not a statement of fact, but a statement of opinion, because what seems to be 'good' to observational learning in everyday, one person, might not be the same for another.
Thus personal statements cannot be considered as statements of fact. Ancient Athens Society. Thus the more such facts are stated, the better we evaluate what the student envisions about the topic at night wiesel quotes, hand, by relating the topic with concrete statements i.e. facts. The final measure to be used for evaluating essays is society, evaluating statements of fact for learning in everyday, accuracy. Now that we have identified the statements of fact, we check to ancient athens society, see if those facts are accurate and if they are, they contribute to a boost in the score. Let us consider the topic from the last measure about learning. If the Rebuilding in Japan: the Korean student writes ``Class room teaching started in 1965 in the USA'' and say in ancient, fact that it started in 2000. Then although the statement is a fact, it is Rebuilding A Story about Avoiding the Korean, not accurate. Thus inaccurate facts contribute inversely to the score, while accurate facts contribute positively to the score.
IMPLEMENTATION OF BASELINE APPROACH. The four measures implemented are Gibberish Detection, Irrelevance Measurement, Identifying statements of fact and checking for athens society, Accuracy of Statements of Fact. The best results would be when we run each of the modules in the above order, so that for each phase we get sentences that are more appropriate to check i.e. if a sentence is gibberish, then there is no point in checking to see if it is relevant or not, and if a sentence is irrelevant then there is no point in checking to see if it is a statement of fact or not. Let us look at the implementation of thesis title each of the four modules - The EGAL::Gibberish module implements Gibberish Detection. The method implemented is.
isGibberish() - This method determines if a given sentence is gibberish or not. It first checks to see if a sentence is semantic gibberish or not as follows - The module first strips off the stop words from the sentence. The remaining content-bearing words are stemmed using the athens society stemmer provided along with Lingua::EN::Tagger. Stop words refer to futurist, a list of function words, that contribute to the grammar alone and not to the meaning of the sentence. If there are at least three content-bearing words in the sentence, then for all such words, using similarity metrics described later, we compute how similar each word is to every other word. Thus if we have N words in the sentence, we end up with a NxN matrix. Then we compute the average of ancient society all the entries in the matrix to determine the semantic coherence of the sentence, a value between 0 and 1. The compliment of this value scaled between 0 and 100 is the percentage gibberishness of the sentence. Futurist Art Movement. If the scaled score is above an ancient society, empirically decided threshold of 90%, then the sentence is flagged as semantic gibberish. Let us consider the sentence ``There is on the list fish and meat that are eating each other''. The only content-bearing words in this sentence are 'eating', 'meat' and 'list'.
The semantic similarities between these words are eating-meat - 0.1581 eating-list - 0 meat-list - 0. This gives us a value of thesis title 0.0527 for the semantic coherence of this sentence. Percentage gibberishness is calculated as (1-0.0527)*100, i.e. 95.73% which is above the threshold of 90% and hence we flag this sentence as semantic gibberish.The threshold we have used has been experimentally derived. After working on a list of athens society sentences which were assessed by humans as gibberish/non-gibberish, the system was tuned to be consistent with the Rebuilding in Japan: A Story War Essay aforementioned judgments, by setting the threshold accordingly. To compute the similarity between words, we used WordNet::Similarity::wup. The measure has been used for athens, words found in WordNet. For those words not found in the knowledge base, a similarity value of 0 is communication styles, used, which results in a reduction of ancient society semantic coherence and therefore an increase in gibberishness, which is complimentary to semantic coherence. We POS tagged the sentence using Lingua::EN::Tagger to elie quotes, identify the part of speech of every word in the sentence. While computing the similarity between sentences, we considered all the senses of a word, given the part of speech that was used in the sentence. Now as we know the part of speech of ancient athens society a word, we would be able to distinguish the Rebuilding in Japan: the Korean War Essay sense of the word ``I'' as used in the sentence ``I am going there.'', where ``I'' would be a pronoun and as in a sentence like ``The element I is found in ancient society, the periodic table'', where ``I'' would be a noun, as in Iodine.
This would enable us to communication styles, handle some of the surprising words found in WordNet, based on society, the part of thesis title speech of that word in the sentence. If the sentence is below the athens society threshold (not semantic gibberish) then we check to see if it is Right of Passage Teenager Essay examples, syntactic gibberish. Athens Society. To determine if a sentence is observational learning examples in everyday, syntactic gibberish, we do the athens following - If the percentage of unknown words and unused links (score) in the sentence is more than an empirical threshold then we say that this sentence is syntactic gibberish. In Japan: A Story War Essay. The threshold has been experimentally found to work best at a value of 50%. Ancient Athens Society. A syntactic gibberish sentence would have lot of unused links according to in Japan: Avoiding the Korean War Essay, Lingua::LinkParser, a grammar parser used to parse sentences. Based on this, if the score is 0 then the sentence is ancient athens, grammatical. If it is a relatively small value it is examples in everyday life, ungrammatical but not gibberish and society if it is high, then the sentence is considered to be syntactic gibberish. This method takes in a sentence from the students response for a topic as input and returns an array, with the zero index contains a 1 if the thesis title sentence is athens, gibberish and a 0 otherwise. At index 1, the array contains the gibberish score associated with the sentence and at index 2, the array contains detailed trace of execution. The alpha version for the module started with identifying only wiesel syntactically gibberish sentences.
To flag a sentence as syntactic gibberish, we considered an absolute value of the number of unknown words and unused links. If that value was greater than 3 then we termed the sentence as gibberish. But this value of 3 remained as threshold be it a sentence of length 5 or length 25. For the beta version, the module was able to identify semantically gibberish sentences as described above. An improvement over beta version, has been achieved in the final version, with modification of the athens society absolute threshold for syntactic gibberish sentences. The threshold has now been converted to a percentage of about Avoiding War Essay unknown words/unused links. Ancient Society. Thus if such words/links are 3 out of 5, then as this percentage is 60%, we flag the sentence as syntactic gibberish. Learning Examples In Everyday Life. If such words/links are 3 out of 25, then as this percentage is 12%, we do not flag this sentence as syntactic gibberish, even if there were 3 such words/links.
isIrrelevant() - This method takes in a sentence from the ancient athens society students' response as input. Different. It then computes the ancient athens relevance of the sentence with the topic/prompt. We consider the content-bearing words to contribute to the relevance of a sentence. Now we consider each of the content-bearing words from the input sentence and observational learning examples life we compare each such word with every word in the topic. So for every word in the topic, we find the maximum similarity that such a word has with any word in the input sentence, using WordNet::Similarity::wup. We then compute the average over all such maximum similarities for athens society, each word in styles, the topic. The compliment of this value scaled between 0 and 100 is the percentage irrelevance of the sentence. If this score is above an ancient athens, empirically decided threshold then the sentence is learning examples life, considered to be irrelevant. Ancient Athens Society. After experimenting with sample responses for topics/prompts, we have decided on a threshold of examples in everyday 70%.
With such a threshold most of the sentences that a human assessor would evaluate as irrelevant are being detected as irrelevant. This method returns an array with its zero index returning a 2 if the sentence is irrelevant and athens a 0 otherwise. The array index 1 contains the irrelevant score between 0 and Sarah's Right of Passage in to Teenager Essay 100. The array index 2 contains the detailed execution trace. The alpha version for the module started with comparing words from the student's response to words in ancient athens, the topic and ``gold standard essay''. This list of ``gold standard essays'' have been written by Sarah's Right of Passage in to Teenager an expert in athens society, the field, for every possible essay topic that the system would handle.
This word match also considered synonymous words by using Thesaurus.com, but the module was still looking for word match, which is not necessarily a semantic match. Thus for the beta version, the module found the semantic similarity between a sentence from student's essay and the topic, by using WordNet::Similarity::wup. Thus the futurist problem of maintaining ``Gold Standard Essay''s has also been eliminated. The performance of the module has been found to be satisfactory and hence has been retained for the final version. The EGAL::FactIdent module implements the Identification of Statements of Fact.
The methods implemented are. fill_stop_hash - this method fills a hash with value words that say that a sentence containing such words is an opinion, not a fact. fill_fact_hash - this method fills a hash with fact words that say that a sentence containing such words is a fact. which are called as a part of the constructor. isFact - this method takes in a sentence from the students response for a topic/prompt. It first checks to see if the sentence contains a comparative adjective like 'smarter' or a superlative adjective like 'smartest' or a comparative adverb like 'higher' or a superlative adverb like 'highest'. Society. If the sentence contains such a word, then it is identified not to be a statement of fact. Next it is checked to see if the thesis title sentence is in any form of ancient athens society future tense. If it is, then the Sarah's in to Teenager Essay sentence is identified not to be a statement of fact. Then it is checked to ancient athens society, see if the sentence is a question and futurist if it is then it is not a statement, let alone a statement of fact. Then it is checked to see if this sentence contains value words or fact words.
If it contains such words, then the athens society sentence is identified to be a statement of opinion or statement of fact respectively. Now, that if a sentence contains value words, it makes it a statement of opinion, was given by thesis title John Langan in a discussion about distinguishing facts from opinions. Now we obtained a list of such value words from a project that worked on identifying such value words. The list of value words and fact words have been put up on links  and ancient athens  respectively. Also if the different communication styles statement contains statistics then it is athens society, identified to be a statement of fact.
Finally as we identify statements of fact using elimination, all others sentences which do not qualify for any of the other conditions would be treated as statements of fact. Thesis Title. This module also returns an array with index zero returning a 4 if the sentence is a statement of fact and a 0 otherwise. At index 1, the array returns always returns a 0 as there is no concept of a score associated with identifying statements of athens fact and at index 2 the array returns a message indicating if the sentence is a statement of fact or not. If not, the different communication reason as to why the sentence is not a statement of fact is sent here. The alpha version for the module started with identifying value words in sentences. Athens. Such sentences with value words are identified to be statements of opinion.
If sentences contained fact words then the sentence has been identified as statement of fact. Also if a sentence contained statistics then again the sentence has been identified as statement of fact. For the beta version, we have identified sentences with comparative/superlative adjectives/adverbs not to be statements of fact. Also sentences in communication styles, future tense have been identified not to be statements of fact. Ancient Society. The module has been found to work satisfactorily and hence has been retained for final version. The EGAL::FactCheck module checks the statements of facts for accuracy. The method implemented is. check_fact() - This method takes in thesis title, a sentence from the ancient athens students response to a prompt/topic. A linkParser tree for the above sentence is built. Using regular expressions the subjects for all the verbs is identified.
A Google query is then constructed to search en.wikipedia.org  using the subjects and any proper nouns in the sentence. If there are no proper nouns, all noun phrases are used. The first Google result is taken and full text associated with this Wikipedia entry is retrieved. We then calculate the frequencies of all the n-grams in the sentence as observed in the full text. We have considered n-grams of at most length 3. and applied Witten-Bell smoothing to art movement, the obtained frequency list. A confidence measure is calculated for each sentence. The measure takes in ancient athens society, some arguments that we shall now see. 'n' refers to the number of words in the n-gram. 'count' refers to the number of night wiesel times the n-gram has occurred in the wikitext/sentence. 'N' refers to athens society, the maximum n-gram length considered which is in our case is 3. Thus based on whether the count is positive or negative, we add or subtract n*(log(count) + N) respectively to the 'measure'. This is art movement, done for each of the n-grams in the sentence. Ancient. Also if count is positive an accumulated score of different n*(log(count) + N) is made to 'max' and to 'min' otherwise. We compute the final 'score' as score = (measure - min) * 100 / (max - min) This score represents the confidence, expressed as a percentage, with which we say that a particular statement of fact is accurate. The module started with the beta version for the project.
The module has been found to society, work satisfactorily, except for return status of facts. The verbosity of the Sarah's Right of Passage Teenager Essay return message has been enhanced to ancient, display more information in the log files. With this modification, the module was ready for the final version. Following is communication styles, a list of tasks and group member who worked on the same - Gibberish Detection - Sudip Khanna and Ajit Datar. Irrelevance Measure - Sudip Khanna. Identifying Statements of Fact - Nagendra Doddapaneni.
Checking Accuracy of Statements of society Fact - Ajit Datar and Sudip Khanna. Web-Interface - Archana Yadav and Ajit Datar. Installation and Administration - Ajit Datar. Documentation - Nagendra Doddapaneni and Sarah's in to Teenager Essay Varsha Kodali. Literary Review - Nagendra Doddapaneni and ancient athens society Varsha Kodali. Irrelevance Measure - EGAL::Relevance identifies sentences to communication, be relevant based on similarity score calculated using WordNet::Similarity::wup. If the percentage irrelevance is More than a threshold then the sentence is considered to be irrelevant and relevant otherwise. Identifying Statements of Fact - EGAL::FactIdent identifies sentences to be statements of fact or not based on the occurrence of fact words and ancient athens society stop words respectively.
If value words occur in a sentence from the student's response, then the sentence is considered to of Passage in to examples, be an society, opinion, because value words are mostly used to express personal view. If fact words such as ``first'' occur in the student's response or a number occurs in Right in to examples, the sentence which is not gibberish and is relevant, then the sentence is considered to be a statement of athens fact. Also questions are not statements themselves and thesis title hence are not statements of ancient fact. Even sentences with comparative/superlative adjectives/adverbs are not considered be statements of fact as they are not concrete. Also if the sentence is in any form of future tense then again the sentence is different communication styles, not a statement of fact as it not a proposition. Checking Statement of Fact for Accuracy - EGAL::FactCheck determines the accuracy of the statements of facts. As mentioned before this module first constructs a LinkParser tree for the sentence from the student response to a prompt and identifies the subject using regular expressions. Then a Google query is constructed and fired to en.wikipedia.org using the subject and proper nouns/noun phrases. Using the ancient first Google result, fulltext for this Wikipedia record is retrieved.
Now to check the accuracy of the statement, we develop a score based on the statistics obtained from considering all n-grams from the sentence and applying Witten-Bell smoothing to wiesel, the frequency of such n-grams as observed in the wikitext. Presently n-grams of length upto 3 are being considered. Thus using this score, we can say that the athens society given statement is a statement of fact with score% confidence. The four modules that we have implemented, give us details of the percentage of gibberish sentences, irrelevant sentences and statements of fact, along with their accuracy. With this information in thesis title, hand, to develop a scoring mechanism consistent with as scored by a humam grader, would be difficult. Thus we came up with a measure with uses maximum information that can be derived from what statistics the athens modules offer. The scoring mechanism that we are using, is a two-phase scoring mechanism. Thesis Title. During the initial phase, we consider two bins of sentences. A bin of good sentences which contain statements of fact and ordinary sentences. A bin of bad sentences which contain gibberish sentences and irrelevant sentences.
We compute the total percentage of sentences from the essay, that go into each of the two bins. Ancient Athens Society. For example, if the night elie essay had 10% sentences which are gibberish, 20% sentences are irrelevant, 30% sentences are statements of fact and the remaining 40% sentences are ordinary sentences. Then the ancient athens society total percentage of sentences in the good bin is 70%, while the total percentage of in Japan: A Story about War Essay sentences in the bad bin is 30%. Society. Then if the good bin has higher percentage sentences than the Sarah's Teenager Essay bad bin, as is the case, then we consider the score of the athens essay to be either 3, 4, 5 or 6. The higher the percentage of sentences in night elie wiesel, the good bin, the higher would be the score. For the given example, a score of say 4 is assigned. Ancient Athens. Now, if there were higher percentage sentences in the bad bin, then a score of Sarah's examples either 0, 1, 2 or 3 would be assigned. Thus the initial phase scoring mechanism assigns an integral score to the essay. Ancient Athens. Now, the final phase scoring mechanism, considers all the statements of fact. It computes the mean of the confidence levels associated with each of the statements of fact.
If the mean is Sarah's in to Teenager Essay, greater than 50, then the score assigned by the intial phase scoring mechanism, is incremented by a fraction. Ancient Athens. If the mean is less than 50, then instead of a score boost, the score would be penalised. By how much, is dependent on the confidence level of facts. For example, there were two statements of Sarah's of Passage in to Teenager fact in the essay. Athens. One was verified with 62% confidence level and the other was verified with 78% confidence level. Then the mean of the confidence levels would be (62+78)/2 which is 70%.
Now, since this value is greater than the threshold of 50%, the score of 4, assigned by the initial phase scoring mechanism, is incremented by the final phase scoring mechanism. So say, a score boost of examples 0.6 is athens society, given. Then the final score would be the sum of the scores assigned by intial phase scoring mechanism and the boost given by the final phase scoring mechanism. So for the example that we considered, the in Japan: about final score would be 4.0 + 0.6 = 4.6 . Now this final value is rounded off to the nearest half number. So 4.6 is rounded off to 4.5 . In the final phase mechanism, the value for score boost has been identified to be following an ancient athens society, exponential i.e. for a mean of 60%, the boost to be given is less, while for a mean of 95%, the boost to be given is much more. Thus an exponential function [((mean-50)*1.26)/50]^3 has been experimentally found to work well, for scoring the in Japan: A Story Avoiding War Essay essays. As a part of ancient evaluation, we have in place modules which check to see if a given sentence is gibberish, if not if its irrelevant and if not if its a statement of fact and thesis title if it is then we check for ancient, its accuracy. Thus on running the system over different communication the following input - The following are the sentences that have been successfully identified as gibberish by ancient athens the EGAL::Gibberish module - Thus keeping the scores, assigned by elie wiesel quotes each of the modules ,in view and their identification of sentences, in the respective categories, rightfully, the system has been able to achieve expected results. Following is a detailed run of the system, with details about some sample essays that the user has given for some prompts used in the system.
Details about what sentences in each of the following essays have been identified as gibberish, irrelevant and statements of fact can be seen in the following text. The following is a response which was graded to be a 3 point essay. Our EGAL system graded the ancient athens essay to a 3.49 score. This was for the prompt: The user response is : The next essay was evaluated to be a 4 pointer, and it was evaluated to be a 2.61. The essay topic was.
For a third essay, the EGAL system has graded the thesis title system to be a 4.0 pointer, where the essay was graded to be a 5.0 pointer. The topic of the essay was : The user response was : The fourth essay is a combination of two 3-point essays written by our co-students for a prompt given commonly in class. The EGAL system graded this grouped essay to be a 3.62. The student response was. -------------------------------------------------- DETAILED DIAGNOSTICS OF THE ESSAY: -------------------------------------------------- Type of Sentences Identified Percentage Gibberish 17.39 Irrelevance 17.39 Facts 26.09 Ordinary 39.13 Percentage of Gibberish Sentences were: 17.39 Percentage of Irrelevant Sentences were: 17.39 Percentage of Fact Sentences were: 26.09 Percentage of Ordinary Sentences were: 39.13 No. of Gibberish Sentences were: 4 No. of Irrelvant Sentences were: 4 No. of Facts Sentences were: 6 No. of Ordinary Sentences were: 9 gibberish sentences were as follows Sentence Many students write essays for exam, some write good, some bad, some worst. Points 91.51% Semantic gibberish Sentence The compter cannot get this idea of athens good, bad, and worst. Points 63.64% Syntactic gibberish Sentence In this case the computer would just be too good to score and give good score to someone who cant even write a creative sentence nor can write grammatical correct sentece.
Points 92.21 Semantic gibberish Sentence Using computers makes work faster. Points 94.44% Semantic gibberish irrelevant sentences were as follows: Sentence Last but not least, computer scoring ethically is not good. Points 75.51% Sentence Automated essay scoring is thesis title, used in GMAT and GRE. Points 72.83% Sentence If a good computer is used this difference can be reduced. Points 70.31% Sentence It just has some difference but not to ancient, a greater extent and such deviations can be ignored as even humans make mistakes. Points 75.00% fact sentences were as follows: Sentence It just tries to find information the ways it is thesis title, supposed to and scores that way. Points 40.23% I can say this is ancient athens society, a fact with 40.23 percent confidence Sentence It uses computers to grade student essays. Points 0.00% I can say this is a fact with 0.00 percent confidence Sentence First of all, the learning in everyday difference between human graded essay and ancient society computer graded essay is not very significant. Points 22.31% I can say this is night, a fact with 22.31 percent confidence Sentence Both tend to be the same.
Points 14.48% I can say this is society, a fact with 14.48 percent confidence Sentence Even though each student has his own views the computer is intelligent enough to catch the differences and grade accordingly. Points 37.05% I can say this is a fact with 37.05 percent confidence Sentence Thus, the Sarah's in to Essay examples computer does not grade an essay harshly than humans. Points 13.05% I can say this is a fact with 13.05 percent confidence ordinary sentences were as follows: Sentence Thts why automated essay scoring is unfair to students. Message This sentence is a statement of fact Nouns: ``thts'' Subjects: ``scoring '' Google query: ``scoring '' ``thts'' site:en.wikipedia.org System cannot verify this using the ancient athens society existing knowledge source. About Avoiding. Sentence For examples, many student know that the computer checks the essays, therefore they learn how to ebat the machine rather then being creative to write their essays and learn something. Ancient Athens Society. Message This sentence is a statement of fact Nouns: ``checks'' ``ebat'' ``essays'' ``student'' ``computer'' ``machine'' ``examples'' ``something'' Subjects: ``''``examples '' Google query: ``''``examples '' ``checks'' ``ebat'' ``essays'' ``student'' ``computer'' ``machine'' ``examples'' ``something'' site:en.wikipedia.org System cannot verify this using the existing knowledge source. Sentence Another point here we can see is that the computer learns from essays written by students, now if the sample essays are not that creative then if someone writes creative essay it will just get confused and give some random score, if not then it will give the best possible score which is still not correct. Message This sentence has comparitive/superlative adverbs/adjectives Sentence So is it fair to get garbage or grate score from machine?
Message This sentence is a statement of elie wiesel fact Nouns: ``score'' ``grate'' ``garbage'' ``machine'' Subjects: Google query: ``score'' ``grate'' ``garbage'' ``machine'' site:en.wikipedia.org System cannot verify this using the existing knowledge source. Sentence To conclude I would say stop this computer scoring, it doesnt make sense when you write an essay thinking hard and someobody who is not real grades it for you and gives you something that you dont confidence about. Message This sentence is in future tense Sentence It also reduces the work load on human graders. Message This sentence contains the society value word work Sentence As a student writes an essay the computer can understand how the student writes and art movement this will help it in grading. Ancient Athens. Message This sentence is in future tense Sentence Finally, I feel that the usage of automated essay scoring is good and should be followed by all including schools and universities.
Message This sentence is in future tense Sentence It will help students and teachers a lot. Message This sentence is in future tense. The fifth essay sample that we are looking at is the topic/prompt given as the futurist art movement response for society, a topic/prompt. The EGAL system has evaluated such a tricky response to communication, a score of 1.96. The topic/prompt was. The response was entered to ancient athens, be. This would usually trick a system, as the response seems to be pseudo-relevant. But here is the analysis of how EGAL handles the same- Now for the sixth essay, we considered a 6 point esssay which was graded as 4.99 on our EGAL system. The Korean. The essay topic was : The user response was: Now for the seventh essay, we considered the same 6-point essay for ancient society, the trvious topic, and evaluated it for a different topic.
The EGAL system graded the essay to be a 2.99 score essay. The response was the observational learning examples in everyday same as the one for ancient athens, the last one. There are some systems that we would like to acknowledge, since we used them as a part of our system. For Gibberish Detection, we used Link Grammar, a grammar parser. This parser enables us to find unused links and unknown words in in everyday, a sentence. With the help of society this parser, we were able to identify syntactic gibberish. We have used WordNet::Similarity package, built on WordNet2.0 for finding the semantic similarity between two words. This is used in identifying semantic gibberish as well as relevance of different communication a sentence to the topic. For identifying statements of fact, we used ideas from online resources , ,  and . Each of these references have helped us decide the basis on which to distinguish facts from opinions and also to identify the properties of a statement of fact.
To check for the accuracy of these statements of facts, we use the idea of a fact repository from athens society Static Knowledge Sources, which would be wikipedia.org in our case. We access this online encyclopedia by constructing a Google query using Google API and fire the query to retrieve wikitext for the first match found by Google in en.wikipedia.org.  Page, E.B. , 1994, New Computer grading of student prose, using modern concepts and software, Journal of Experimental Education.  Peter W. Foltz, Darrell Laham, Thomas K. Landauer, The Intelligent Essay Assessor: Applications to Educational Technology, http://imej.wfu.edu/articles/1999/2/04/index.asp.  Human Value Project, http://www.uia.org/values/vztab12.htm, Union of International Associations 1997 - 2004.  The Static Knowledge Sources: Ontology, Fact Repository and elie Lexicons, http://ilit.umbc.edu/Book/sks.htm.  WordNet 2.0, ``A lexical database for the English language'', http://www.cogsci.princeton.edu/  Valentini, Salvatore, Francesca Neri, and Alessandro Cucchiarelli. 2003. An Overview of Current Research on athens society, Automated Essay Grading.
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Proceedings of the athens Workshop on Discourse Relations and Discourse Marking, Annual Meeting of the Association of Computational Linguistics, Montreal, Canada.  Burstein, J., Leacock, C., and Right of Passage in to Swartz, R. Athens. , 2001, Automated evaluation of essay and short answers. Proceedings of the Sixth International Computer Assisted Assessment Conference, Loughborough University, Loughborough, UK.  Christie, J.R., 1999, Automated essay marking-for both style and in Japan: Avoiding War Essay content. Ancient Athens Society. Proceedings of the night Third Annual Computer Assisted Assessment Conference, Loughborough University, Loughborough, UK.
 Ming, P.Y., Mikhailov, A.A., and Kuan, T.L., 2000, Intelligent essay marking system. Learners Togeather, Feb 2000, NgccANN Polytechnic, Singapore http://ipdweb.np.edu.sg/lt/feb00/intelligent_essay_marking.pdf IEMS.  Mitchell, T., Russel, T., Broomhead, P., and Aldridge N.(2002) . Towards robust computerized marking of free-text responses. Proceedings of the ancient Sixth International Computer Assisted Assessment Conference, Loughborough University, Loughborough, UK.